目前将VR教学互动模块做成Xblock显然还早了点，专业的教学工具厂商如 labster 来做这方面的工作然后通过LTI提供给Open edX也许更好。
我们近期将推出可以嵌入Open edX教学组件的Xblock，效果类似http://126.96.36.199/360vr/ ，方便将全景视频引入在线学习。而因为全景视频的高码率，一段6:34的4K视频达到了799.8M，意味着一秒钟需要2.02994923857868M的流量，因此我们也会推出一个比较经济的分布存储方案来配合这个Xblock使用。
Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement.There is no universal usage of open file formats in OER.
Defining the scope and nature of open educational resources
The idea of open educational resources (OER) has numerous working definitions. The term was firstly coined at UNESCO’s 2002 Forum on Open Courseware and designates “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work”. Often cited is the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation term which defines OER as:
“teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge”.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) defines OER as: “digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students, and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning, and research. OER includes learning content, software tools to develop, use, and distribute content, and implementation resources such as open licences”. (This is the definition cited by Wikipedia’s sister project, Wikiversity.) By way of comparison, the Commonwealth of Learning “has adopted the widest definition of Open Educational Resources (OER) as ‘materials offered freely and openly to use and adapt for teaching, learning, development and research'”. The WikiEducator project suggests that OER refers “to educational resources (lesson plans, quizzes, syllabi, instructional modules, simulations, etc.) that are freely available for use, reuse, adaptation, and sharing’.
The above definitions expose some of the tensions that exist with OER:
- Nature of the resource: Several of the definitions above limit the definition of OER to digital resources, while others consider that any educational resource can be included in the definition.
- Source of the resource: While some of the definitions require a resource to be produced with an explicit educational aim in mind, others broaden this to include any resource which may potentially be used for learning
- Level of openness: Most definitions require that a resource be placed in the public domain. Others require for use to be granted merely for educational purposes, or exclude commercial uses.
At the same time, these definitions also share some universal commonalities, namely they all:
- cover both use and reuse, repurposing, and modification of the resources;
- include free use for educational purposes by teachers and learners
- encompass all types of digital media.
Given the diversity of users, creators and sponsors of open educational resources, it is not surprising to find a variety of use cases and requirements. For this reason, it may be as helpful to consider the differences between descriptions of open educational resources as it is to consider the descriptions themselves. One of several tensions in reaching a consensus description of OER (as found in the above definitions) is whether there should be explicit emphasis placed on specific technologies. For example, a video can be openly licensed and freely used without being a streaming video. A book can be openly licensed and freely used without being an electronic document. This technologically driven tension is deeply bound up with the discourse of open-source licensing. For more, see Licensing and Types of OER later in this article.
There is also a tension between entities which find value in quantifying usage of OER and those which see such metrics as themselves being irrelevant to free and open resources. Those requiring metrics associated with OER are often those with economic investment in the technologies needed to access or provide electronic OER, those with economic interests potentially threatened by OER, or those requiring justification for the costs of implementing and maintaining the infrastructure or access to the freely available OER. While a semantic distinction can be made delineating the technologies used to access and host learning content from the content itself, these technologies are generally accepted as part of the collective of open educational resources.
Since OER are intended to be available for a variety of educational purposes, most organizations using OER neither award degrees nor provide academic or administrative support to students seeking college credits towards a diploma from a degree granting accredited institution. In open education, there is an emerging effort by some accredited institutions to offer free certifications, or achievement badges, to document and acknowledge the accomplishments of participants.
Licensing and types of OER
Open educational resources often involve issues relating to intellectual property rights. Traditional educational materials, such as textbooks, are protected under conventional copyright terms. However, alternative and more flexible licensing options have become available as a result of the work of Creative Commons, an organization that provides ready-made licensing agreements that are less restrictive than the “all rights reserved” terms of standard international copyright. These new options have become a “critical infrastructure service for the OER movement.”Another license, typically used by developers of OER software, is the GNU General Public License from the free and open-source software (FOSS) community. Open licensing allows uses of the materials that would not be easily permitted under copyright alone.
Types of open educational resources include: full courses, course materials, modules, learning objects, open textbooks, openly licensed (often streamed) videos, tests, software, and other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. OER may be freely and openly available static resources, dynamic resources which change over time in the course of having knowledge seekers interacting with and updating them (such as this Wikipedia article), or a course or module with a combination of these resources.
- Europe – Learning Resource Exchange for schools (LRE) is a service launched by European Schoolnet in 2004 enabling educators to find multilingual open educational resources from many different countries and providers. Currently, more than 200,000 learning resources are searchable in one portal based on language, subject, resource type and age range.
- India – National Council Of Educational Research and Training digitized all its textbooks from 1st standard to 12th standard. The textbooks are available online for free. Central Institute of Educational Technology, a constituent Unit of NCERT, digitized more than thousand audio and video programmes. All the educational AV material developed by CIET is presently available at Sakshat Portal an initiative of Ministry of Human Resources and Development. In addition, NROER (National Repository for Open Educational Resources) houses variety of e-content.
- US – Washington State’s Open Course Library Project is a collection of expertly developed educational materials – including textbooks, syllabi, course activities, readings, and assessments – for 81 high-enrolling college courses. All course have now been released and are providing faculty with a high-quality option that will cost students no more than $30 per course. However, a study found that very few classes were actually using these materials (http://www.nacs.org/Portals/NACS/Uploaded_Documents/PDF/Research/OCLresults2014.pdf).
- Bangladesh is the first country to digitize a complete set of textbooks for grades 1-12. Distribution is free to all.
- Uruguay sought up to 1,000 digital learning resources in a Request For Proposals (RFP) in June 2011.
- South Korea has announced a plan to digitize all of its textbooks and to provide all students with computers and digitized textbooks.
- The California Learning Resources Network Free Digital Textbook Initiative at high school level, initiated by former Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger.
- The Michigan Department of Education provided $600,000 to create the Michigan Open Book Project in 2014. The initial selection of OER textbooks in history, economics, geography and social studies was issued in August, 2015. There has been significant negative reaction to the materials’ inaccuracies, design flaws and confusing distribution.
- The Shuttleworth Foundation‘s Free high school science texts for South Africa
- Saudi Arabia had a comprehensive project in 2008 to digitize and improve the Math and Science text books in all k-12 grades.
- Saudi Arabia started a project in 2011 to digitize all text books other than Math and Science.
OER global logo adopted by UNESCO
With the advent of growing international awareness and implementation of open educational resources, a global OER logo (shown right) was adopted for use in multiple languages by UNESCO. The design of the Global OER logo creates a common global visual idea, representing “subtle and explicit representations of the subjects and goals of OER”. Its full explanation and recommendation of use is available from UNESCO.
GeoGebra 是致力于各个教育阶段的动态数学软件, 它将几何、代数、表格、绘图、统计和微积分汇集成一个易用的软件包。其绘图的基本元素包括点，直线，线段，多边形，向量，圆锥曲线和函数。（3.2及以后的版本还加入了电子表格和正在不断完善的数据处理功能）这些绘图元素均可在创建后直接在屏幕或者使用命令动态改变。
GeoGebra 是一个的迅速扩大的社群, 它的用户位于几乎每个国家数量多达数百万. GeoGebra 已经成为动态数学软件的领头军, 在教学和学习方面支持科学、技术、工程和数学(STEM) 的教育和创新.
开放教育协会（Open Education Consortium）是一个教育机构，个人和组织的全球网络，支持基于开放、协作、创新和集体发展、使用开放教育材料来实现教育的路径。开放教育协会是在美国注册，并在世界各地运营的非营利、社会福利机构。
2016 OE Award Winners: Individual Categories 个人奖项，台湾国立交通大学的Prof. Wei-I Lee因为对台湾开放课程TOCC的贡献获奖。
2016 OE Award Winners: Site & Course Categories 网站和课程奖项，网易开放课程获奖。
我们想要所有的学习者得到最好的在线体验。在学习者指南的开头，我们添加了Learning in a MOOC主题来帮助学习者知道可以在线学习环境得到什么，以及解答了一些常见问题。这个新的主题包含了到edX演示课程的链接，学习者可以在其中进行练习。
学习者在Open edX平台完成了一个订单后，可以方便的得到支付的信息：我们在账户设置里面增加了一个“订单历史”页面，显示了订单基本信息，连接到每个教育的收据页面。更多信息请看 View Your Order History。
和你的学习者沟通是很重要的，我们对批量邮件特性做了更新，帮助你确认邮件到达了你想要的人。你可以在我自己、职员、管理员、所有学习者中选择多个组来发送，如果你使用了cohort特性，你可以发送给一个活着多个corhort。当你发送邮件给群组时，重复的回执会被过滤－－这样你不用担心把某人的邮箱给淹了:)更多细节请看 Message Addressing 。
我们想让你得到关于你的学习者如何学习的精确数据。为了达到这点，我们增加了5个事件到我们的数据包，来捕获学习者是如何在课程中导航的，包括 edx.ui.lms.sequence.next_selected 和 edx.ui.lms.link_clicked events。更多信息请看 Course Navigation Events。
Open edX Con 2016 刚刚结束几周，我们希望每个人都从中得到了乐趣！超过230个来自27个国家的人参与了这次会议，分享许多sessions, tutorials和 workshops ，涵盖了几乎所有关于从 “把 Open edX用好 ” 到“建立 LTI 应用”的内容。两天的会后黑客马拉松产生了一些新的项目，我们希望融入到平台中。
对于使用 e-commerce 特性的Open edX 实例，我们增加了创建优惠码的功能，可以给学习者折扣。优惠码可以用到一个和多个课程，指定给一个或多个用户。更多信息请看 Create and Manage Coupons 。
目前在edX平台中的所有时间和日期是universal coordinated time (UTC)—这可能会引起对截止日期的混乱。LMS会很快具有一个时区设置，自动转换课程结束时间为学习者当前时区。所以你再也不用计算时区了（这个特性晚的有点坑爹了。。。）更多信息请看Learner Experience Improvement: Time Zone Conversion。
最后，我们很高兴的宣布 Eucalyptus很快就来了！我们期待在接下来的几周发布这个最新版本的Open edX平台。
Open Education Alliance
The Chronicle of Higher Education
ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36
Open Education Consortium