The Next Generation Digital Learning Environment-下一代数字学习环境





Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement.[1]There is no universal usage of open file formats in OER.

The development and promotion of open educational resources is often motivated by a desire to provide an alternate or enhanced educationalparadigm.[2]

Defining the scope and nature of open educational resources

The idea of open educational resources (OER) has numerous working definitions.[3] The term was firstly coined at UNESCO’s 2002 Forum on Open Courseware and designates “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work”. Often cited is the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation term which defines OER as:

“teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge”.[4]

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) defines OER as: “digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students, and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning, and research. OER includes learning content, software tools to develop, use, and distribute content, and implementation resources such as open licences”.[5] (This is the definition cited by Wikipedia’s sister project, Wikiversity.)[6] By way of comparison, the Commonwealth of Learning “has adopted the widest definition of Open Educational Resources (OER) as ‘materials offered freely and openly to use and adapt for teaching, learning, development and research'”.[7] The WikiEducator project suggests that OER refers “to educational resources (lesson plans, quizzes, syllabi, instructional modules, simulations, etc.) that are freely available for use, reuse, adaptation, and sharing’.[8][9]

The above definitions expose some of the tensions that exist with OER:

  • Nature of the resource: Several of the definitions above limit the definition of OER to digital resources, while others consider that any educational resource can be included in the definition.
  • Source of the resource: While some of the definitions require a resource to be produced with an explicit educational aim in mind, others broaden this to include any resource which may potentially be used for learning
  • Level of openness: Most definitions require that a resource be placed in the public domain. Others require for use to be granted merely for educational purposes, or exclude commercial uses.

At the same time, these definitions also share some universal commonalities, namely they all:

  • cover both use and reuse, repurposing, and modification of the resources;
  • include free use for educational purposes by teachers and learners
  • encompass all types of digital media.[10]

Given the diversity of users, creators and sponsors of open educational resources, it is not surprising to find a variety of use cases and requirements. For this reason, it may be as helpful to consider the differences between descriptions of open educational resources as it is to consider the descriptions themselves. One of several tensions in reaching a consensus description of OER (as found in the above definitions) is whether there should be explicit emphasis placed on specific technologies. For example, a video can be openly licensed and freely used without being a streaming video. A book can be openly licensed and freely used without being an electronic document. This technologically driven tension is deeply bound up with the discourse of open-source licensing. For more, see Licensing and Types of OER later in this article.

There is also a tension between entities which find value in quantifying usage of OER and those which see such metrics as themselves being irrelevant to free and open resources. Those requiring metrics associated with OER are often those with economic investment in the technologies needed to access or provide electronic OER, those with economic interests potentially threatened by OER,[11] or those requiring justification for the costs of implementing and maintaining the infrastructure or access to the freely available OER. While a semantic distinction can be made delineating the technologies used to access and host learning content from the content itself, these technologies are generally accepted as part of the collective of open educational resources.[12]

Since OER are intended to be available for a variety of educational purposes, most organizations using OER neither award degrees nor provide academic or administrative support to students seeking college credits towards a diploma from a degree granting accredited institution.[13][14] In open education, there is an emerging effort by some accredited institutions to offer free certifications, or achievement badges, to document and acknowledge the accomplishments of participants.


Licensing and types of OER[edit]

Turning a Resource into an Open Educational Resource

The GNU head, iconic symbol of theGNU Project, and thus the GNU GPL.

Open educational resources often involve issues relating to intellectual property rights. Traditional educational materials, such as textbooks, are protected under conventional copyright terms. However, alternative and more flexible licensing options have become available as a result of the work of Creative Commons, an organization that provides ready-made licensing agreements that are less restrictive than the “all rights reserved” terms of standard international copyright. These new options have become a “critical infrastructure service for the OER movement.”[30]Another license, typically used by developers of OER software, is the GNU General Public License from the free and open-source software (FOSS) community. Open licensing allows uses of the materials that would not be easily permitted under copyright alone.[31]

Types of open educational resources include: full courses, course materials, modules, learning objects, open textbooks, openly licensed (often streamed) videos, tests, software, and other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. OER may be freely and openly available static resources, dynamic resources which change over time in the course of having knowledge seekers interacting with and updating them (such as this Wikipedia article), or a course or module with a combination of these resources.

International programs[edit]

High hopes have been voiced for OERs to alleviate the digital divide between the global North and the global South, and to make a contribution to the development of less advanced economies.[67]

  • Europe – Learning Resource Exchange for schools (LRE) is a service launched by European Schoolnet in 2004 enabling educators to find multilingual open educational resources from many different countries and providers. Currently, more than 200,000 learning resources are searchable in one portal based on language, subject, resource type and age range.
  • India – National Council Of Educational Research and Training digitized all its textbooks from 1st standard to 12th standard. The textbooks are available online for free. Central Institute of Educational Technology, a constituent Unit of NCERT, digitized more than thousand audio and video programmes. All the educational AV material developed by CIET is presently available at Sakshat Portal an initiative of Ministry of Human Resources and Development. In addition, NROER (National Repository for Open Educational Resources) houses variety of e-content.
  • US – Washington State’s Open Course Library Project is a collection of expertly developed educational materials – including textbooks, syllabi, course activities, readings, and assessments – for 81 high-enrolling college courses. All course have now been released and are providing faculty with a high-quality option that will cost students no more than $30 per course. However, a study found that very few classes were actually using these materials (
  • Bangladesh is the first country to digitize a complete set of textbooks for grades 1-12.[68] Distribution is free to all.
  • Uruguay sought up to 1,000 digital learning resources in a Request For Proposals (RFP) in June 2011.[69]
  • South Korea has announced a plan to digitize all of its textbooks and to provide all students with computers and digitized textbooks.[70]
  • The California Learning Resources Network Free Digital Textbook Initiative at high school level,[71] initiated by former Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger.
  • The Michigan Department of Education provided $600,000 to create the Michigan Open Book Project in 2014. The initial selection of OER textbooks in history, economics, geography and social studies was issued in August, 2015. There has been significant negative reaction to the materials’ inaccuracies, design flaws and confusing distribution.
  • The Shuttleworth Foundation‘s Free high school science texts for South Africa[72]

English language version of global logo for open educational resources.

English language version of Open Educational Resources global logo.

  • Saudi Arabia had a comprehensive project in 2008 to digitize and improve the Math and Science text books in all k-12 grades.[73]
  • Saudi Arabia started a project in 2011 to digitize all text books other than Math and Science.[citation needed]

OER global logo adopted by UNESCO[edit]

With the advent of growing international awareness and implementation of open educational resources, a global OER logo (shown right) was adopted for use in multiple languages by UNESCO. The design of the Global OER logo creates a common global visual idea, representing “subtle and explicit representations of the subjects and goals of OER”. Its full explanation and recommendation of use is available from UNESCO.[74]

GeoGebra 是致力于各个教育阶段的动态数学软件, 它将几何、代数、表格、绘图、统计和微积分汇集成一个易用的软件包。其绘图的基本元素包括点,直线,线段,多边形,向量,圆锥曲线和函数。(3.2及以后的版本还加入了电子表格和正在不断完善的数据处理功能)这些绘图元素均可在创建后直接在屏幕或者使用命令动态改变。


GeoGebra 是一个的迅速扩大的社群, 它的用户位于几乎每个国家数量多达数百万. GeoGebra 已经成为动态数学软件的领头军, 在教学和学习方面支持科学、技术、工程和数学(STEM) 的教育和创新.


2016 Winners of OE Awards-开放教育奖

开放教育协会(Open Education Consortium)是一个教育机构,个人和组织的全球网络,支持基于开放、协作、创新和集体发展、使用开放教育材料来实现教育的路径。开放教育协会是在美国注册,并在世界各地运营的非营利、社会福利机构。

OEC有很多会员单位,包括Delft、MIT、UC Irvine等。



2016 OE Award Winners: Individual Categories  个人奖项,台湾国立交通大学的Prof. Wei-I Lee因为对台湾开放课程TOCC的贡献获奖。

2016 OE Award Winners: Site & Course Categories  网站和课程奖项,网易开放课程获奖。

2016 OE Award Winners: Project Categories  项目奖项

2016 OE Award Winners: Special Categories 特别奖项






北京Open edX Meetup



北京Open edX Meetup 将于7月17日在北京外国语大学举办,计划人数20人左右。聚会上大家可交流使用体验、开发经验。这是中国Open edX用户的第一次聚会,今后将在国内其他城市陆续举行。

参加聚会者可以加QQ群 106781163或者Open Edtech微信群,方便现场联系联络。



讨论关于Open edX的各种内容:部署、定制、开发、分析;也欢迎关于在线教育、教育技术 、学习分析方面的内容。

Talks about Open edX: deployment; customize; development; analytics.  Online education, edutech,learning anaytics contents are welcome.

主题  Topics

• 种瓜 / Open edX 架构 - Open edX Architecture (30min)

• 崔老师-南开大学 / 基于Open edX的课程设计 - Course design based on Open edX  (30min)

• (待定)张老师-华中师范大学 / Open edX在K12的应用展望 - Open edX in K12

• (待定)点滴云 / Open edX职业教育应用实践 - Open edX in vocational education (30min)

•  伟东云 / edX与伟东云教育平台的集成策略及用户体验改进问题探讨 (30min)

• 黄永亮 / Insights架构和配置 – Insights components and configuration (30min)

• MT / Open edX开发环境配置 – Open edX development envirment setup (10min)

• 黄鸿飞 / 分布式部署简介 – Introduction of distributed deployment (10min)

• 种瓜-wwj / Open edX和IM的结合 – Open edX and IM(10min)


更多Open edX Meeup请看







促进合作是开放教育的核心。就像开放教育联盟 所说的:“分享大概就是教育最基本的特点:教育就是与他人分享知识、见解和信息。与此同时,新的知识、技能、观念和见解也被建立起来。”








Google has become an increasingly active participant in the world of education, particularly when it comes to exploring the role technology can play in re-imagining the way we learn. With Google Play for Education, Android and Play-powered Samsung tablets for the classroom and its work with MOOCs and online courseware, the company is expanding its presence both in traditional academic spaces classroom and outside.

Google’s educational experiments continued today, beginning with the launch of its first MOOC-style course, now open to the public, on how to interpret and understand online data. The second experiment, quietly announced on Google’s Open Source Blog, was the launch of Oppia, a project that aims “to make it easy for anyone to create online interactive activities” that others can learn from.

The motivation behind Oppia, Google explained in its announcement, stems from the fact that, while a growing amount of educational content is now delivered via video and SMS, much of it remains static and asynchronous. Or, said another way, digitizing a lecture or presentation isn’t enough; there is still plenty of room for improvement when it comes to the way these tools create opportunities for interactivity, dialogue and feedback.

Google’s new open source project essentially aims to take the headache or mystery out of the process by providing the framework by which anyone can quickly create these types of interactive learning experiences and add them to their site. But, beyond that, Oppia also has potentially interesting implications for teachers, and not necessarily in a way that reduces their concern of one day being replaced by a robotic or holographic, AI version of themselves.

In other words, Oppia works to improve the interactivity of the learning process by assuming the role of a mentor or teacher who asks questions of the learner. Then, based on how the learner responds to those questions, the teacher decides how to proceed, which questions to ask, how to give feedback and so on. In describing Oppia, Google says that one can think of it as a “smart feedback system,” which is an attempt to begin automating how we “teach a person to fish” — to use its example.

image01The system gathers data on the ways learners interact with whoever is guiding the exploration, and the content they provide, and shares it with authors to make it easy for them to fix problems with their lesson. Authors might log in to Oppia to find an answer that learners are providing to a question but which the system isn’t correctly or adequately responding to, for example.

The “teachers” can then “create a new learning path” for the question, basing their feedback on how they would respond to the question were they actually interacting with the person in real life. Oppia then provides the feedback to any future learner responding to the question. The project also allows teachers to accept responses to their lessons in numeric, text and multiple choice formats, and offer clickable maps and code evaluators, for example.

On the technical side, Google says that it’s based Oppia on an extensible framework, allowing developers to add their own inputs and extend the range of potential formats and types of responses that Oppia understands. Explorations, as Google calls the lessons users can build through its system, that are created on an Oppia server can be embedded in any web page, and embeddings can “refer to a particular version” of the exploration so that future changes don’t mess with the principle version, the company explained.

In addition, users can also collaborate on creation and editing of explorations, with version control, and the system allows parameters to be associated with a learner, which aim to enable teachers to create deeper interactive experiences. Oh, and Oppia has a built in responsive UI for mobile devices, as well, as The Next Web points out.

As with many Google projects of this kind, it’s not totally clear how much attention and support Google intends to throw at Oppia going forward. The project’s home page conspicuously says that Oppia is not officially a Google product, which would seem to imply that Google isn’t planning to dedicate a ton of manpower or resources to the project. Instead, the company is likely hoping that developers will assume ownership of Oppia and that the community will take over maintenance.

Nonetheless, it’s still a neat tool and it should be interesting to see what becomes of Oppia in the coming months. While it is, of course, intended to be a learning tool, Oppia could potentially be applied across in a wide range of use cases, enabling a sort of expanded, extensible FAQ or feedback system for products, companies, teachers and more.



Top 10 IT Issues, 2016: Divest, Reinvest, and Differentiate



  1. 信息安全: 开发一个全面、敏捷的方法来创建一个安全的网络信息安全,制定安全策略,减少机构接触信息安全威胁。
  2. 优化教育技术: Collaborating with faculty and academic leadership to understand and support innovations and changes in education and to optimize the use of technology in teaching and learning, including understanding the appropriate level of technology to use
  3. 学生成功技术: Improving student outcomes through an institutional approach that strategically leverages technology
  4. IT 员工招聘和留用: Ensuring adequate staffing capacity and staff retention as budgets shrink or remain flat and as external competition grows
  5. 机构数据管理: Improving the management of institutional data through data standards, integration, protection, and governance
  6. IT资金模型: Developing IT funding models that sustain core services, support innovation, and facilitate growth
  7. BI 商业智能和分析: Developing effective methods for business intelligence, reporting, and analytics to ensure they are relevant to institutional priorities and decision making and can be easily accessed and used by administrators, faculty, and students
  8. 企业应用整合: Integrating enterprise applications and services to deliver systems, services, processes, and analytics that are scalable and constituent centered
  9. IT 组织发展: Creating IT organizational structures, staff roles, and staff development strategies that are flexible enough to support innovation and accommodate ongoing changes in higher education, IT service delivery, technology, and analytics
  10. E-Learning 和在线教育: Providing scalable and well-resourced e-learning services, facilities, and staff to support increased access to and expansion of online education