在线教育、MOOC和联通主义

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%A4%A7%E8%A7%84%E6%A8%A1%E5%BC%80%E6%94%BE%E5%9C%A8%E7%BA%BF%E8%AF%BE%E5%A0%82

Dialogue and Connectivism: A New Approach to Understanding and Promoting Dialogue-Rich Networked Learning Andrew Ravenscroft International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning Vol. 12.3 March – 2011, Learning Technology Research Institute (LTRI), London Metropolitan University, UK

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for a digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), 3–10.

http://education-2020.wikispaces.com/Connectivism

http://halfanhour.blogspot.com/2014/04/connectivism-as-learning-theory.html

http://cck11.mooc.ca/

http://baike.baidu.com/view/5060218.htm

联通主义表述了一种适应当前社会结构变化的学习模式。学习不再是内化的个人活动。当新的学习工具被使用时,人们的学习方式与学习目的也发生了变化。联通主义建立在这样一种理解上: 即知识基础的迅速改变导致决策的改变、新的信息持续被获得、区分重要信息与非重要信息的能力至关重要。联通主义的起点是个人,个人的知识组成了一个网络,这种网络被编入各种组织与机构,反过来各组织与机构的知识又被回馈给个人网络,提供个人的继续学习。

西门思在《Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age》一文中系统提出了联通主义的思想,指出学习不再是一个人的活动,学习是连接专门节点和信息源的过程。

这种知识发展的循环(个人对网络对组织)使得学习者通过他们所建立的连接在各自的领域保持不落伍。所以在西门思看来,在管道比管道中的内容物更重要。网络、情景和其他实体(许多是外部的)的相互影响导致了一种学习的新概念和方法。个体对明天所需知识的学习能力比对今天知识的掌握能力更重要。对所有学习理论的真正挑战是在应用知识的同时,促进已知的知识。不过,当知识为人所需,而又不为人知时,寻出出处而满足需要就成了十分关键的技能。由于知识不断增长进化,获得所需知识的途径比学习者当前掌握的知识更重要。知识发展越快,个体就越不可能占有所有的知识。
正如西门思所指出的,联通主义是一种经由混沌、网络、复杂性与自我组织等理论探索的原理的整体。学习是一个过程,这种过程发生在模糊不清的环境中,学习(被定义为动态的知识)可存在于我们自身之外(在一种组织或数据库的范围内)。我们可将学习集中在将专业知识系列的连接方面。这种连接能够使我们学到比现有的知识体系更多、更重要的东西。其实,联通主义表达了一种“关系中学(learning by relationships)”和“分布式认知(distributed cognition)”的观念。贝尔(Philip Bell) ,温(William Winn)认为: 新的、高度交互的、高度网络化的媒介,推动人们探讨一种对有意义的交互和远程协作反应灵敏的框架,比如分布式认知。这是支持分布式或者集体智力的更为一般的系统设计的具体形式。当人们听到虚拟社区、协作网络课程、分布式多媒体、虚拟协作、浸润式环境和泛在计算的时候,他们需要一种像分布式认知这样的整合性理论观点,用户构建他们对于如何利用这些新技术的理解。
从整个学习理论发展过程来看,联结主义(Thorndike)是基于行为主义的,在他们看来,学习发生在我们的刺激和反应的联结之中。而新联结主义(神经和认知科学)关注的是神经网络一关注我们的学习方式一类比于把学习看成一种基于神经元联结的信息加工过程。联通主义继承了认知科学的新联结主义的某些特性——把学习看作一个网络形成过程。但新联结主义仅仅关注学习是如何在我们的头脑中发生的,而联通主义关注形成过程和创建有意义的网络,其中也许包括技术中介的学习,承认当我们于别人对话的过程中学习发生。联通主义强烈地关注外部知识源的联结,而不仅仅设法去解释知识如何在我们的头脑中的形成。

最新Open edX发行版Dogwood正式发布

https://open.edx.org/blog/newest-open-edx-release-dogwood-now-available

A photo of a dogwood blossom--a white, four petaled flower.波士顿还在下雪,而在edX办公室,刺槐花(Dogwood)正在开放!Open edX的第四个版本带来了新的特性,可用性提高,以及其他平台选项。一个全球社区使用 Open edX 来教学和培训,从澳大利亚的高中、印度尼西亚的大学、英国的公司、还有edX.org。

确认阅读了 Open edX Release Notes 来了解Dogwood的细节信息。使用请阅读Dogwood Installation Instructions

Dogwood的新特性

Dogwood 包含若干新特性, 包括:

  • Partial Credit
  • Open edX Analytics Developer Stack
  • Initial Version of Comprehensive Theming
  • Additional File Types for Open Response Assessments
  • Timed Exams
  • LTI XBlock
  • Otto Ecommerce Service

另外,社区的XBlocks是可用的。 请检视XBlocks目录。如果你是服务提供者或者开发者,请考虑添加你的XBlock到XBlock目录 位于Open edX wiki。

升级的Django和Python

为了跟踪最新的安全更新和补丁,同时也让开发者从最新特性受益,DogWood中Django从1.4升级到1.87,Python升级到2.7.10。如果当前在运行Cypress,升级到DogWood是比较复杂的。请阅读 Installation Guide  或者 edx-code / openedx-ops 的存档。

过时的特性

edX平台 删除了以下特性 :

  • Original ORA (“ORA1”) Problems
  • Legacy Instructor Dashboard
  • Studio Checklist page
  • Certain XModules and Tools, including the graphical_slider_tool and the FoldIt protein simulator
  • The psychometrics and licenses Django apps

Eucalyptus

下一个 Open edX 发行版是 Eucalyptus,将在2016年中发布。

2016年2月Open edX更新

https://open.edx.org/announcements/february-2016-open-edx-product-update

February 2016 Open edX Product Update

Hello once again from Cambridge! All of the edX engineers have been hard at work all through January, which means you and your learners are in for some new tools and exciting improvements to existing features.

Note: These new tools and improvements are available in the latest release of the Open edX platform. They are not yet available in a named release.

Video Course in the EdX Learning Series

We know that you work hard to create excellent videos for your course. To make this sometimes daunting task a little easier, the EdX Learning Series has recently launched its newest course! Produced by the edX video team with help from Boston University, Creating Video for the edX Platform has great information and insider tips for helping you plan and achieve informative and engaging course videos.

Improvements for Learners

We’ve just released several new tools that will help learners find, return to, and understand course content, and build community while they’re at it.

A peer instruction problem showing the review and final answer steps.Peer Instruction Tool

Our partners at the University of British Columbia have contributed the Peer Instruction tool, which allows learners to see answers and explanations that other learners have given as they work through multiple choice problems. For more information about setting up peer instruction problems, see Peer Instruction tool. For more information about the way learners interact with these problems, see Explaining Multiple Choice Answers.

Teams

By creating and joining teams, learners can work together in small groups for projects and activities. For more information about enabling teams in your course, see Teams. For information about the way learners on teams work together, see Working on Team Projects and Activities.

Video Closed Captions

Learners can now see closed captions as well as transcripts for videos. Learners can view the transcripts and closed captions separately or at the same time. Currently, closed captions and transcripts use the same file.

Improvements for Course Authors

While learners are enjoying new ways of learning and interacting, course authors will enjoy improvements we’ve made to Studio and the LMS.

The visual editor with the formatting menu expanded to show heading levels starting at heading 3.

HTML Component Accessibility

You may have noticed that for HTML components in Studio, the available headings in the visual editor now start at level 3. We made this change for accessibility reasons: Because HTML components are part of a complete page, and heading levels 1 and 2 are reserved for page elements such as the page title, using heading levels 1 and 2 in your HTML components can interfere with screen readers and other tools. For more information, see The Visual Editor.

Changing Course Pacing

Course teams can now easily change the course pacing from instructor-paced to self-paced. For more information, see Setting Course Pacing.

The Android Mobile App

The latest version of the edX app for Android is here! The Android app has all the functionality that the iPhone app, released last month, offers—including the ability to view HTML and text components and complete basic assessments. For more information, see Using an edX Mobile App.

Extended Registration Page

Thanks to a contribution from OpenCraft, Open edX administrators can find out more about their new users by adding custom fields to the registration page. These fields can be text entry fields, drop-down lists, and more. For more information, see Adding Custom Fields to the Registration Page.

Coming Soon

A new version of our Drag and Drop problem type is in the works! This new version will be much easier to set up and will address accessibility issues in the original version. We will eventually deprecate version 1 of the Drag and Drop problem type, so only version 2 will be available in Studio.

And, last but not least, the Dogwood release candidate has been created! We’re testing it now to make sure it’s ready for you, and we plan to release it this month.